This week Kiley talks about some spooky German librarians, and Jonathan meets a federal official desperately trying to profit from their title...wait...that's most of them...
Topics: The First Impeachment of a US Senator, The Brothers Grimm
Music: "Another Day" by The Fisherman.
You can find us on Facebook, Twitter, and visit our website at www.halfwit-history.com!
Reach out, say hello, or suggest a topic at HalfwitPod@gmail.com
This week Kiley talks about some spooky German librarians, and Jonathan meets a federal official desperately trying to profit from their title...wait...that's most of them...
Topics: The First Impeachment of a US Senator, The Brothers Grimm
Music: "Another Day" by The Fisherman.
You can find us on Facebook, Twitter, and visit our website at www.halfwit-history.com!
Reach out, say hello, or suggest a topic at HalfwitPod@gmail.com
Support the show (https://www.ko-fi.com/halfwithistory)
the Nazi party decreed that every household should own a copy of kindergarten and house. Martian house, Martian house, Martian margin.
Probably market. Probably marching. I don't want the Martian manhunter stories. Theo. Hi and welcome the half history. I'm Jonathan, and I'm Kylie. And this is a show where we talk about the upcoming week and it's still gonna be a few weeks delay,
but we're getting closer.
This is the second episode we're recording today.
We promise we won't skip a week. It'll just be late. You will get all weeks. Just not always at the right time.
I mean, how how could we skip a week of history like we can't do that?
I know. It would just be cruel. Unusual?
Yeah. Next year, we're just gonna have Thio come November record, like two episodes a week. And one of those episodes is gonna have to be for a week in December.
Yes. Yep. I think next year
we're just gonna have to like it jam pack a weekend with recording or something. You be a bit
lots and lots of episodes.
Anyways, do we have any updates from a few hours?
Other than the fact that has been What, like six hours? No.
Okay, well, when's your topic?
Mine is in 17 98.
You beat me by that much.
That much. So also what week is this? Four since are launching this out of sequence?
This is December 16th through the 22nd.
Cool. My topics is on December 17th. Perfect. So I'm not sure if we can call this a segment, but it's time for topical topics
like that. You made a jingle for
it. It's not really a segment. My body topic is just really on the nose. Topical this week.
Okay. All right.
So in December 17th of 17 98 the first impeachment trial against a U. S. Senator William Blount of Tennessee begins. Oh, he had a
really a topical
impeachment against a senator
or president. You know, whatever.
Well, that happens tomorrow, Wink. Well,
yes, that's true.
December 18th. Yes. So let's start with talking about this William Blount fella. His first real job as a public servant was in December of 17 76 when he became a paymaster for the third North Carolina Regimen, an infantry unit in the North Carolina line of the Continental Army formed by the Continental Congress. All right, in case you were wondering, a paymaster is pretty much exactly what it sounds like.
I would assume
they are someone who disperses funds, commissions, fees, salaries, et cetera. In November of the next year, he was removed from this position. I couldn't find out for what reason, but he was reinstated in April of 17. 78.
All right, but so he was removed and then reinstated.
The removal was forcible. That's all I could find.
Maybe I feel like I want to say benefit the doubt. Maybe it was lack of funding, but
anyways, the next year, he decided to run for the New Bern House of Commons. Representative seat. He lost to Richard speak in what was an election called violent in an age of fear selections?
But about claimed that there was voter fraud and got the entire election thrown out.
Hey, wait. Something else sounds familiar to
Oh, there will be a lot of that.
Oh, great. This'll is my sarcasm voice.
So while he was out convincing people that there was voter fraud, he was still paymaster during the bat during this time and This is also when the Battle of Camden happened in 17. 80. And I'm betting that at this point, they wish he wasn't still in this position and that they did just permanently kicked him out because he lost about $300,000 worth of soldiers pay.
That's almost nine million in today's money. Ouch. Yep. So he left being paymaster once again.
I should hope so.
But then he ran for the House of Commons. Staat in in North Carolina.
Dude, why do you just, like, clearly you're incompetent? Quit. Just be done.
During this time, he was selected to be the North Carolina representative in the Continental Congress, hopes with in which he would introduce and get passed a bill called the Land Grab Act.
Not gonna lie. I definitely would have expected more for him to be the representative to the Continental Congress. I don't I feel like I wouldn't have expected someone who had clearly just failed
the rest of his previous life and will fill the rest of his continued.
The topic is his impeachment. It's like it just goes downhill from here. Guys, it was
actually kind of wild because I was just kind of figuring that there was gonna be, like, one event that was just like, Oh, this is the only thing otherwise fairly normal political bullshit.
You got more than you bargained for.
Yeah, during this timing, was selected to be the North Carolina representative in the Continental Congress, where he would introduce and get past the bill. The Land grab act. This act allowed people to buy land west of the Appalachian Mountains from from territory that was not controlled by Native Americans. He also at the same time got Pasternak that gave any soldier with two or more years worth of service a land grant from the government to purchase this area of land as well. But the Blount family had a large history of land purchasing as well. In fact, in 17 76 the family used their plantation generated fortune to purchase a plot of land called the Transylvania Colony. Transylvania threw me off to what I read. Okay, Nothing to do with Dracula. Transylvania Colony was a short lived attempt at another colony slash country. External to the Continental Congress. Like where did you Did you find it? Yeah, it is. It was the land that was Kentucky. And Tennessee will become Kentucky and Tennessee. So in that included a decent chunk of the northern section of what we call Tennessee. It wasn't all of Tennessee, but there was, like, a stripper along the North. I was just
eventually going. Wow, that's a lot of land. It is
a lot of land.
A lot of land, just not as much as I was
envisioning. Take a guess at where This land west of Appalachia, that the land Grab back, Let people purchase or receive military grants for,
huh? I wonder.
It was all of the parts of Tennessee unknown by the Blount estate. A boy, This is a bit
red flag. It doesn't sound like it right away because it's like, Oh, anything that doesn't belong to them is what is gonna be bought.
Yeah, but I just foresee something
bad happening. Yeah. So what was about to come was that the soldiers in the Continental Army, most of which did not want their land west of Appalachia,
I mean, fair enough. 00 I see where this is
going. So there were people who were sent out to Proposition everyone, all the soldiers to get their land grants off of them. And the major purchaser of them was one William Blount. Eso he essentially got the land for Really? Gee slash free Because he signed in tow, He helped sign into law something that gave these people free vouchers for land.
And if they don't want it
and if they don't
want it, they could just give it away. I wonder.
Yeah. So this is It's wild.
Wow. I mean, like a good plan, but also, like, bad plan. And this isn't
even what he gets impeached for. Oh, God. Oh,
no, I'm not. I'm not gonna say what's the worry, Spike?
Not directly. Tangentially, definitely. But not really factored. Yeah, this expended North Carolina beyond what it could sustain and put the state in massive debt to Congress. Oh, good doing all of this, I guess. With airline of state money.
What seas? So that get him impeached. No, Damn, it s
o Blount steps in again in 17. 84 with a plan to have Congress absorbed this land from North Carolina, along with the accumulated debt essentially that entirely created by him and his family owned primarily by him and his family over these large swaths of land.
I hate this dude.
It was barely passed, but nevertheless, it was worse. So the government now assumed all of the debt that he generated while buying all this land.
What the What did no one like, even remotely look at, like the receipts, like the bill of sale or whatever?
I mean, they were all focused on trying to write the Constitution of this S O. I don't think anyone in government was paying attention to this man.
Well, no. They were definitely paying attention.
One person get into clearly a lot.
So they were definitely paying attention because he didn't kept losing things in. I don't even know
what, like $9 million essentially
and a few different elections leading up to this. Like, I don't even include all of them. There were so many things that he ran. Forgot, was kicked out of ran for again. Got
Did he run unopposed?
What? That I quit. I could. The podcast doesn't do much.
So his next three years would be nothing but missed opportunities for Blount. So now his karma's catch enough with him. Now that his land was seated to Congress, they were writing up a treaty with local Native American tribes that would use this land as a bargaining chip. Oops. Didn't think about that. God. Hey. Missed the initial meetings in 17. 85 when the treaty was signed.
What did you have to do? Better? That was better than seeing where your land went. But
supposedly he was on his way. But I don't know what that meant. So he missed it by that much. You will. It was really like a day or two shy of when the treaty officially got signed.
So, like, ah, horse threw a shoe.
and he couldn't find someone to fix it, because clearly he's not. This dude definitely is not the kind of dude who can, you know, shoot his
own horse kind of thing. Probably not.
All right, so did a dumb. But
so you missed that meeting, and then he missed the next meeting in 17. 86 that ratified the treaty.
I also missed that one by days.
Oh, my goodness. Do Clearly it takes you longer to travel. And you think it
does so. His family and constituents were getting quick to anger with loss of some of their land that most likely could have been prevented, or at least compromise on if he had been there on time. Because of this anger, he left home to rejoin Congress to New York that he was supposed to be attending this entire time.
Basically, he was playing hookey from his job to be late for meetings, to try and salvage his own screw up. Yes. Wow, dude. Yep. How did you make it this far?
And he goes further.
I don't like this
any more. So because of this anger, he left home to rejoin the Congress. That was that he was supposed to be attending, missing almost all of the debates about the Constitution that he was supposed to be helping, right? And when it came time to sign, he was more than reluctant. This is my own note, likely because he knows next to nothing about what he was about to be signed
because he's an idiot
and also because he's plagued by so many failed business deals at this point for the last few years. So again, karma is catching up to this man in his lab employees to try and benefit his already wealthy family stepping political ladders. It just can't with the food. But luckily for him, Oh, no. The deals that were debated for North Carolina turned out to be more than good than bad. Rather, even though he wasn't there.
Okay, well, so the state I'm still not Gladys benefiting him.
So it allowed him to win the Senate seat in seven, during which time he campaigned for the ratification of the Constitution, which they ratified in 17 89. And also they ended up voting to see the land's obtained by Blount to the new federal government. A boy. So he is now sold his debt on this land to a government twice.
How how is this dude? Keep doing this.
So with everything going good, Blount ran for the first federal Senate seat in North Carolina and lost. Okay, I told you
a story. He's out.
No, it is a wild ride, as you see, because this man's comedy of political errors proves to have no end because he was instead appointed governor of what was now known as the Southwest Territory future Tennessee By George Washington.
What the actual laugh. So oh, back
all the land that he bought convinced North Carolina to buy, convinced the Continental Congress to buy Oh, almost lost it all in a treaty during the Continental Congress. Got most of it back when the Constitution was signed, then was taken taken away again because they bought the bought the debt from that and he didn't win a Senate seat was then just immediately. Jordan President George Washington just gives him governorship over this land in hopes that he can create it into another state. So informing his new state as Kylie shakes her head, the local frontiersmen were skeptical about Blount's intentions. No, no, no kidding. No solo frontiersmen were super skeptical about him. So Blount decided that his best move was to go and hire all of the well known people that he previously sold all the land to, to be part of his office, and somehow that made everyone trust him for the time being drained. The swamp.
I seriously contemplating just
getting locked up and walking out people of Appalachia. I'm so sorry that you haven't had a chance to be educated.
It too late for them.
It's not too late. It's never too late. There are good people. They're just
not this Dude.
Wow. I'm so sorry.
Thistles. Your history, friends learn from
and just f Y I Everything that I found on this guy was very much like rose colored glasses, like he's the founder of Tennessee. And all this stuff in there was like nothing bad written about this man. Other than, like, a brief note. Everything that I found that came from that area of governance was all like, Oh, like he may have been impeached, but it didn't really matter. It was so glossed over all these, like faux pas. It happened, dear Go anyways, So we fast forward a few years toe 17 96 and Blount was able to formally achieve statehood for Tennessee,
and once again, move up the ranks to become the first senator of Tennessee. No. So you went from governor of land to creating Tennessee to being governor of Tennessee, to being Senator, federal senator of Tennessee in 17 95. Everything came crashing down for Blount. I think I miss type that I think Switch those 2 17 95 should have been earlier. 17 96 should be now. I'm fine. Everything came crashing down for Blount. His 2.5 million acres of land. That's how much land it was.
Insane amount of land
that he still owned in Tennessee became worthless as the market for Western Appalachian expansion collapsed.
Ha! Sorry. That was mean. But he had it coming.
So all that land that he purchased with his family money with family credit that was bought off twice by larger governments was worth very little and completely bankrupt. Blount. Yeah,
I shouldn't laugh. It's
wildly upside down. So needing to recoup his losses, he began attempting to sell his land to the British.
Wait, wait, no, that we just had a war about this. Don't give the British your land. What are you doing?
It didn't work.
But nevertheless, Lord, So then land prices continue to fall as he continued to have bad investors. Speculation and global investors were looking at that The French in the pierogies war they were trying to gain I don't think is directly related to the peonies war. But I was happening around that time. The French were trying to gain control of Spanish controlled Louisiana and Florida. And because of this trade speculation was tanking for Western expansion. Because if the French had these areas, then right there wouldn't be reliable trade routes for the Americas to get through the Mississippi. Right. So not being able Thio deal with being even Maur bankrupt than he already was. At present, Blood concocted a plan. You wrote out some plans, physically rode out plans, know that were then sent to Britain that outlined how he was going to set up militias to meet with Britain forces to help them claim Louisiana in Florida for the British in exchange for passed to the Mississippi remaining open for American Trade's folk, Kylie's faces stretched in shock. Yeah, if this type of deal were to go through successfully, the land evaluations of his two and 1/2 1,000,000 acres would definitely go way back up. And he would get himself out of bankruptcy and probably even profit again. Good God, yeah, So while this plan was set in motion and people were over delivering this message to Britain, he had people in Britain delivering this message. I think they got their this wasn't sorted yet they were there doing a merchant from, uh, I think he was. From Knoxville, Tennessee, named James Comey ended up turning over his portion of the letters containing Blount's conspiracy plans to Colonel David Henley, who then turned it over to Timothy Pickering, the United States secretary of war, who already had a bone to pick with Blount. Good then turned it over to President John Adams, who gave the letter to the Senate. So on July 3rd of 17 97 the Senate review of the contents of the conspiracy plans while Block was well, Blatt was on a walk.
Just, you know, go take a little bit. Just go take a nice long walk. We won't discuss anything important while you're gone, I swear.
So when he got back, they sat him down and just read the letter out loud in front. And this Alcala mated with Vice President Thomas Jefferson, instructing Blount to tell him if he did or did not write this letter. Blow did not answer, asked if he could return the next day. Once he had an answer and he did not return. I
got a Dodge.
The Senate formed in investing investigative committee and the House of Representatives. Voted 41 to 30 to impeach Blount.
Really? On Lee 44. And you warned to
30 after all of this,
But But I Uh huh,
it's almost like another really close impeachment. That made no sense.
I don't like
you. Interestingly enough, when he was impeached, he was also jailed.
They found him?
No, they mean, yes, they found him. Okay. He just left Tennessee. You didn't come back to the Senate,
right? But I just I kind of assumed you like one on the run or something.
He was planning on going on, Okay? He went back to North Carolina.
He's permanently late. So you didn't prep fast enough to get out?
Yes. So he went back to North Carolina, gathers all of his belongings, get on a ship to bring
Eddie was too darn slow.
So they grabbed him when he was impeached. And apparently, impeachment back then meant you were put in jail until the Senate trial,
huh? Can we bring that back?
I wonder. He posted bail and left again. So it's not like it was really did anything. I
e can't with Theo.
So we sent a representative to his trial, and he was voted 25 to 1 to be expelled from the Senate.
Good. Who is that blood? Was it him?
No, it wasn't me. He wasn't there.
All right. Who was the one?
Ah, I forget his name. I didn't really look into him that much.
Who's just dying? The one who That
the one doesn't need to be right. They were obviously dumb.
Probably the other person
from North Carolina. So, upon hearing the results, Abigail Adams was cited as being sad that there was no guillotine in Philadelphia.
Oh, every L. Adams was a bad. But
that's not the end.
In 17 98 Blount gets himself reelected to the Tennessee State Senate. No way. Weren't blocked in by blankets and force would have left. What a wild ride.
Jail? No, he posted bail. He was right.
So we learned a few different things from this instance. One thing that happened when way later was that the Senate decided that it was inappropriate for the House of Representatives to impeach a senator. But they decided that the Senate has the power to which I believe is still in still in effect. today, the Senate has the power to vote to. What was the word? Expel a member from Congress so we can still expel members from Congress. We can't technically impeach them. He's the only member of Congress to have. Well, he's not the only one. He's one of 29 is ready before 29 different people. Oh, they the website is. I had said it was impeachment, but I learned later that the 29 people are people who were voted on being expelled from Congress. The most recent one was I think it was 2011. There was some guy having an affair, and they were voting to expel him from the Senate.
Yes, I actually think, remember?
Yeah. But before that, there was only, like, one or two even like talks about doing this to someone else in 95 or something like that. Yeah. And then before that, we hadn't done it since the early 19 hundreds. Late 18 hundreds.
You really like you really have to screw up hard for politicians to think you're scum bag.
And I didn't write down here. Yeah, I didn't write it down here because I was trying to avoid the going to death. But he died two years later.
good. Yep. But he didn't die. A senator?
So he is a senator.
I hate this man that I hate you.
So my whole purpose of wanting to look more into this had nothing to do with this man. But more to do with why aren't we still expelling public officials who do not have their constituents best interest in mind?
Because the politicians protect their own?
I just don't get it. We have this power. We pretend to use it. There's a bunch of times that we have used censorship of of Congress, which is the weakest punishment that the Congress can deal out, which is a formal letter denouncing the actions of a Congress person either. Senator. Yeah, either. Senator. Representative. Only one person who has received censorship has ever been reelected.
Well, I mean, that's
so so while it's not a formal punishment, it's more like a formal reading of disapproval,
It seems to have worked, and this is it was funny. A lot of the things that I saw people getting expelled was for Congress. People physically getting in fights with each other during during Congress.
Congress is more like that now.
You know that
it would make watching those that
meetings more interesting. It would buy me my I just I don't get how some of our current senators have not gotten censorship, have not gotten trials for expulsion. Like there's so much that they're currently doing to try and impede what they're supposed to be doing. Yeah, and it's been happening for years on both sides. But on this, at this point in time, it's very much on one side is doing a lot of the impeding Republicans. If you can even call them that these days because they're not just authoritarians puppets. Yeah, but anyways, that was the wild ride that I took while looking into this.
That was something. All right,
Please talk to constituents. Speak up like take power back like
email call. Make your voice heard. It's
because this is a power that they have.
like if they actually gave us, they could excuse me.
There's that explicit tag.
Yeah. If they actually gave a dang, they could be holding trials to get each other out of there for just blatantly. Like I mean frickin McConnell. Like the frickin thing where he said that he would not be an impartial juror. He he
admitted to breaking his oath of office in that he has every intend to break his oath of office. It's why
there are so many problems
with why has no one brought up expulsion after that? Like people were expelled for less. If you go on like line and look at what people got expelled for because it happened frequently in the 18 hundreds
and then, like, kind of stopped, right? Yeah, yeah, yeah. I don't I honestly have absolutely no idea.
Anyhoo, that's enough ranting for me. Time to move on to your topic.
My event took place on December 20th of 18. 12.
No, not too long After you being like that much. Um, and it's a little bit more positive. I don't know. We'll see. I want you to close your eyes closed and think of some of your favorite classic fairy tales.
Okay, I think I know where this is going to
say A couple of them out loud.
Well, I think I figured out where I know this is going. The only things that are going through my head. Are he'll being chopped off?
You are correct. Yes. Okay. If anyone thought of Snow White, Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella, Rumpelstiltskin, Rapunzel, Hansel and Gretel just to name a few, then you're a fan of the Brothers Grimm. Now, I'm sure many of you, including you, Jonathan. I already knew that.
Yep. And whoever got Kylie's Yankee swap this year from Christmas?
Oh, I forgot I did that. It was Nick. Um wow. I was really in a mood because I was already thinking about this one. All right. So in honor of the 207th anniversary of the first publication of Grimm's fairy tales, I want to talk about the authors and their legacy. Go So Grimm's fairy tales were originally known as Children's and Household Tales, or Kinderhook Wound House March in and they were a collection of fairy tales published on December 20th 18 12 by the brothers Jacob and Wilhelm Wilhelm Grimm, um, who are better known as the Brothers Grimm. The first edition contained 86 stories, but by the publication of the seventh edition in 18 57 there were 210 unique fairy tales Wow. Yes. So, first off some history on the brothers Jacobin Wilhelm were born born in 17 85 and 17 86 respectively. Um, where Two of eight Children in their family, the two oldest. Their father was a well regarded district magistrate in Stein, out near Castle K s S E L. As such, the brothers were sent to school to receive a classical education, and they proved to be diligent students. They began to follow in their father's footsteps and pursue a degree in law. However, their father died in 17 96 from pneumonia, and the family lost their main source of financial support groups. Yeah, that's Yep, they relied on their on and grandfather their mother's side of the family, and Jacob took on the role of the head of the household at just 11 years old. The brothers were then sent to the prestigious high school Lies IAM in Castle, and their grandfather stressed the need for them to apply themselves industriously to secure their future welfare and provide for their family upon the death of their grandfather. Again, the brothers focused on becoming the best students at their school with the intent to follow their father into law. Jacob graduated head of his class and 18 02 while Wilhelm contracted asthma and scarlet fever, which delayed his graduation by a year. But he did also graduate head of his class now. So good job, Bud. Both were given special dispense dispensations for studying law at the University of Marburg. Apparently, their social standing wasn't high enough for them to have gotten regular admittance, so they had to petition for a like special dispensation to attend the school. I was about to say the words. I did not realize school was dependent on social standing and then
corrected myself. Wow, again topical,
Has people of social standing are currently being arrested for getting in
any way eso? While it's cool, the brothers developed a relationship with Professor Friedrich Karl von serving Me cool. Andi turned their interest was literature, history and folklore. So Jacob even changed his focus at school from law to literature. But will home continued with law. Their mother died in 18 08 leaving the brothers as the main support system for their siblings, and Jacob ended up leaving school to work to work full time to support them. And he took a job with the Hessen. Jacob was appointed the court library into the King of Australia, and he went on to become a librarian and castle. Um and then, well, home later joined him as a librarian. Nice. My calling. Okay. Working on archive for close enough around this time. Friends of the friends of the brothers, Achim von Arnim and Clemens Britain, Britain. No bread, no potato. They asked the brothers to collect oral tales for publication for a project that they were working on. So the brothers began collecting old books and asking friends and acquaintances in Castle to tell them tales and to gather stories from other friends. So this is the beginning of their collection. Collection of those different stories and stuff
Absolutely admire that.
Yeah, Just go out asking Hey, can you tell me a story?
A great fan of fiction and folklore and storytelling
s o. The rise of romanticism during the 18th century had revived the interest in traditional folk stories, which the Grimm's and their colleagues represented a pure form of national literature and culture. They even established a methodology for collecting and recording folk stories that became the basis for folklore studies, and it's very similar to like the method used today for collecting, like oral history and that kind
of thing. That's very cool.
Yeah, So their time is Librarians provided the brothers ample time for research, and they experienced a productive period of scholarship, publishing a number of books between 18 12 and 18 30. This included their original volume of fairy tales, as well as two volumes of German legends and a volume of early literary history. They also published works about Danish and Irish folk tales as well as North mythology, and they continue to edit the German hotel collection. So they kept producing new additions as they gathered more stories to put into it. These works became so widely recognized that the brothers received honorary doctorates from the Union Route Universities in Marburg, Berlin M Breslau, which is now Wroclaw. It's a girl with a squiggle
through it, which is a interesting letter to for me to see. Is it a squealer? Dad? Look a like a like a slash.
It's a slash.
Okay, I've seen that before. I have no idea what
I don't know how to pronounce it so fingers fast. Also, I wish that my life as an archivist slash library in provided me ample time to do my own personal research. So Wilhelm eventually married, while Jacob continued to live with his brother and his new and his brother's new wife. After being overlooked for the position of chief librarian and castle, the brothers moved to gotten Gin, which was in the Kingdom of Hanover, and they took employment at the University of Going Gin. Jacob as a professor and head librarian and Wilhelm as a professor and, I guess, like sometimes library in the continuing and they continue to research and publish books. I'm something that I read like when I was researching and stuff talked about Jacob, living with his younger brother and his brother's wife. And it, like referred to them, is like this like weirdly well oiled machine, where, like it was almost like the Children were communal in a way, in that, like both brothers, like acted like the dad kind of thing, so is very like, I guess it was a very like, fluid like relationship within that family in that just there wasn't like a distinction between like Oh my Children. They're not yours Kind of thing was just like there. Everybody is. Have a child
either. Children, please take care of
someone else. Please deal
with this child. Please tell them horrific stories and make them stay in line.
I just thought it was really interesting. Um, okay. In 18 37 they lost their university posts after joining in protest with the gun again. Seven. The 18 thirties were a period of political upheaval and peasant revolt in Germany leading to the Movement for Democratic Reform, known as Young Germany. The Grimm brothers were not directly aligned with the young Germans. But five of their colleagues reacted against the demands of Ernest Augustus, who is the king of Hanover, who dissolved the Parliament of Hanover in 18 37 and demanded oaths of allegiance from all civil servants, which included professors at the university eso for refusing to sign the oath. The seven professors were dismissed and three were deported from Hanover. Oh, this included Jacob, who went back to Castle. He was later joined there by Wilhelm Wilhelm's wife and their four Children s o. During this time of financial hardship, the brothers turned toward what would become a lifelong project. The writing of a definitive dictionary. Oh yeah. So in 18 40 largely due to the appeals of some friends to Frederick William, the Fourth of Prussia, their brothers were offered post at the University of Berlin, which included research stipends, which is a wonderful way to hear. Once settled, they continued their work on the German dictionary. Jacob turns his attention to researching German legal traditions and the history of the German language, and it was published in the late 18 forties and early fifties. Meanwhile, Wilhelm begin researching medieval literature while editing new additions of their fairy tales. Yeah, After the revolutions of 18 48 in the German states, the brothers were elected to the civil Parliament. Jacob became a prominent member of the National Assembly at maims, and their political activities were short lived as their hope dwindled for a unified Germany, and their disenchantment with the whole thing grew. In the late 18 forties, Jacob resigned his university position and saw the publication of the history of the German language. I'm not even gonna pretend to try and pronounce it in German, Wilhelm continued at his university post until 18 52 and after retiring from teaching, the brothers devoted themselves to the German dictionary for the rest of their lives. Wow, Like I said, lifelong project,
right? Yeah, Well, there are a lot of words,
and now we're getting to the part that you accuse me of all the time. Will Home died of an infection, and Jacob became increasingly reclusive, deeply upset at his brother stuff. He continued to work on the dictionary until his own death in 18 63. Now onto the fairy tales, Okay, moving on. Like I said before the rise of romanticism and romantic nationalism, where trends in popular culture in the early 19th century and they really revived the interest in fairy tales. So fairy tales of decline since they're late 17th century Peak. So the Grimm brothers aided the revival with their folklore collection, built on the condition of conviction that a national identity could be found in popular culture and with the common folk on day collected and published their tails as a reflection of German cultural identity. So is very much motivated by nationalism, which I didn't know that so the brothers were directly influenced by Vintano and Von Arnim which were the friends from earlier that I mentioned who had edited and adapted the folk songs. The Boy's Magic Corn, also known as Cornucopia. I'm not saying in German, I can't It's it's there and I'm just like I can't do it The began the collection with the purpose of creating a scholarly treatise on traditional stories and to end of preserving the stories as they have been handed down from generation to generation, which was a practice that was threatened by increased industrialization. So that whole like oral history thing is going to the wayside, as it did pretty much everywhere else. Industrialization. It's gone. Oh, yeah, Um, there are some efforts to bring it back, but it's just it's pretty much gone at this point. Versions of tales differ from region to region, picking up bits and pieces of local culture and lore, drawing a turn of phrase from a song or another story and flushing out characters with features taken from the audience witnessing their performance. So things are always evolving. Changing everybody tells the story differently and as our interest, however, the Grimm's appropriated stories as being uniquely German, like Little Red Riding Hood, which had existed in many versions and regions throughout Europe, not just Germany, because they believe that such stories were reflections of Germanic culture. Furthermore, the brother saw fragments of old religions of face wrecking, reflected in the stories which they thought continued to exist and survive through the field. The telling of the stories. Okay, so they kind of adapted everything to make it more German. Essentially So. While the brothers were collecting stories at the past of their friend, they produced a manuscript of the 53 tales that they collected for inclusion in his third volume of that cornucopia book, The Magic Horn Boy Thing, Boys, not a corn. Sorry, Magic Horn Boy. I like that one better. And then they sent him copies of his main there manuscript. He either ignored or forgot about them and left the copies in a church in Alsace, where they were found in 1920.
yeah, and they Yeah, they became known as the Oldenburg manuscript, and it's the earliest exit version of the Grimm's collection and has become a valuable source for scholars studying the development of the Grimm's collection from the time of its inception. So that was like the absolute earliest collection of tales that they wrote down, right. So the brothers gained a reputation for collecting tales from peasants, although many of the tales actually came from middle class aristocratic acquaintances, Um, Wilhelm's wife, door chin wild and her family, along with their nursery maid, told the brothers some of the more well known tales like canceling Gretel and Sleeping Beauty. Several of the story tellers were actually of Hugo, not ancestry, and they told tales that definitely had some French origin. And some other tales were also collected from Dorothy a Vie Hman, the wife of a middle class Taylor and also of French descent. So a lot of their tails actually came from like a French background, where they swishing around. Yep. Oh, so despite Dorothy is middle class background in the first English translation, she was characterized as a peasant and given the name Gamber, Gretel Jammer, jammer, Gretel Why, I have absolutely no idea. So, additionally, some of the tales probably originated in written form during the medieval period, with writers such as Strap for Strep Parola and a Kochi. Oh, okay, that's a guess, but they were then modified in the 17th century. And then again, rear end by the Grimm's. So Something to remember is that in the early 18 hundreds, a united Germany didn't exist, right, and all the small kingdoms were actually occupied by the French A. Napoleon. So the brothers goal of preserving in shaping the tales as something uniquely German at a time of French occupation was a form of sort of intellectual resistance. And in doing so, they established a methodology for collecting and preserving folklore that then set the model, followed later by writers throughout Europe during times of occupation. So they kind of set like the standard, I guess, for keeping your like narratives alive. Right? Which is
I like it.
Yep. So despite the popularity of these stories today, Grimm's fairy tales were not originally well received.
A classic artist syndrome?
Yes. So the major complaint, they were unappealing to Children.
yeah. There are also some objections to the subject matter that were deemed unsuitable. Yeah. Yep. So heating the criticisms
Germans for you.
So heating the criticisms. The brothers made numerous alterations to their stories throughout the different editions, which included turning the wicked mother of the first edition and Snow White and Hansel and Gretel into a stepmother, Um, as motherhood was considered sacred. So the idea of the mother doing that was like, abhorrent. But the stepmother was fine. Apparently
not the real mother didn't give birth to him.
True, Clearly not a maternal bone in her body. I don't know.
Obviously, that set a precedent for years and years to come like stepmothers air only tangentially related to the family.
Yep. Eso. Another change was the removal of sexual references such as Rapunzel innocently asking why her dress was getting tight around her belly and thus naively revealing to the witch Dame Gothel of her pregnancy and the princes visits. But in many respects of violence, particularly when punishing villains was actually increased Oh, I'm in. This likely reflected the idea that the bad guy gets what they deserve. Okay, so the more harsh the punishment, the more just it is kind of thing. But like Saxon mean, moms are gone. But villains can be like murdered and may or whatever by
way of most Christian.
By the 18 seventies, the tales that increased greatly in popularity to the point that they were added to the teaching curriculum in Prussia. So, like on Li, like a decade after their death in the 20th century, the work was maintained. The work has maintained status as second only to the Bible as the most popular book in Germany. Wow, yeah, so is hugely popular in Germany. It's sales generated a mini industry of criticism, which analyzed the tales folklore, content in the context of literary history, socialism and psychological elements, which were often along Freudian and junkie and lines and anyone who is not familiar with Carl Junk, which I was not
whatever. Clearly all I did was Go Go. And he was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology. You clearly knew that I didn't.
I took psychology.
So lots of dissection of the psychological aspects of some of these stories, and they're deeper meanings. Course sends its me. I do have to include a bummer.
Oh, did someone die?
Well, the Third Reich used a Grimm stories to foster nationalism.
Oh, I mean, I I grabbed that as soon as you said that it was a nationalist thing.
Okay? The Nazi party decreed that every household should own a copy of kindergarten and house. Martian house, Martian house, Martian house margin.
Probably marching. Probably marching. I don't think the Martian Manhunter his stories. I
wish she would. Um okay, So later officials of the Allied occupied Germany actually banned the book for a period post war because it was used as, like, propaganda. So it makes sense that they'd be like, We're done with that for now
for a few years.
Or however, in the U. S. The 1937 release of Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs showed the triumph of good over evil and innocence over oppression, which was a popular theme that Disney repeated in 1950 with Cinderella. And in 1959 during the Cold War was Sleeping Beauty
snow. It was hugely controversial.
Yes. However, it did help build the base of a foundation that Disney built an empire on.
Right. So is there. I think I mentioned that in our Epcot episode Is everything that he did in those early years was almost always viewed, is controversial and would sink him, and he would never work. And it
pretty much all started with Snow white.
Yep. Yep. But I mean it is. It is like the triumph of good over evil. So, like I guess, and like Disney definitely edited
a lot of it. You make it much more palatable for the American audience. There is still just in general, the fact that there was a feature length film that was animated was a No no.
Well, yes and no.
You know, there was a lot of the German nationalism still kind of like present, if you look at the underlying tone. And then there was also, like Jewish connotations with the
dwarves. Yeah, we could spend a bit entire episode talking about that. We're moving on. So additionally, the Cinderella motif, the story of a poor girl finding love and success is repeated in movies like Pretty Woman, The Princess Diaries, Ever After Maid in Manhattan and Ellen. She did every romance and, like 1000 1,100,000 more So you name it. It probably has that in there somewhere, anyway. So 20th century educators debated the value and influence of teaching stories that include brutality and violence, and some of the more gruesome details were actually sanitized like modern times,
no longer cutting off heels and send around Cinderella.
Yeah, So some educators believe that Children should be shielded from cruelty of any form that stories with a happy ending or find to teach. Where is those that are darker, particularly the legends might pose more harm. On the other hand, a lot of educators and psychologists believe that Children easily discerned the difference between what his story and what is not, and that the tales continue to have value for Children because they teach valuable lessons like good and evil. Rapers is wrong. Don't be a jerk. That kind of
bad things happened
that things happen and sucks. More popular stories, like Canceling Gretel and Little Red Riding Hood, have become staples of modern childhood, presented in coloring books, puppet shows and cartoons. Other stories, however, have been considered too gruesome and have not made a popular transition, namely, like 90% of the others. Nevertheless, Children remain enamored with the Grimm fairy tales with and with the brothers themselves having been embraced as the creators of the stories and even as part of the stories themselves. So the Film Brothers Grimm imagines them as con artists exploiting superstitious German peasants until they're asked to confront a genuine fairy tale curse that calls them to finally be heroes I've seen. It's
ridiculous. Yeah, I've seen it, too. It's ridiculous. Interesting
theme movie ever after shows the Room brothers in their role as collectors of fairy tales, though they learned that there's to their surprise that at least one of their stories, Cinderella was actually true. Movie,
Yes, yep, I understand it's midnight for you. Some of these.
So the show grim follows the detective who discovers that he is a grim, the latest in line of guardians who are sworn to keep the balance between humanity and mythological creatures. Another show ever after high imagines the Grimm brothers here is descendants called Milton and Giles as headmasters of ever after high boarding school, where they train the Children of the previous generation of fairy tale characters to follow in their parentsfootsteps. I've seen it is a Children show. I've seen it. I'm admitting that right now, and I'm really mad that there isn't another season yet
really ever mentions the Children show. She has seen it
usually, yes, so, and these are just a few movies and shows that feature the Grimm brothers, there's clearly a fascination. Not just with the stories but with the brothers themselves. So that's kind of a fun. And now I want to play a game.
A game with me. Come play with me. Yeah. All right. So we're gonna harken back to ever. So to where I made you guess of space terms were real or not. Well, now I'm gonna make you guess if these are the titles of Riel Grimm Brothers tails or I made
them up. Okay. All right.
Are you ready? All right. So the fisherman and his wife True? Yes. This jail tells the story of a fisherman that finds a magical flounder and then sets it free. It claims is a prince, but his wife demands that he makes it granted wishes. But she does so wish after wishes never enough until the last wish returns them to the life that they had before the flounder. So basically, they got greedy and then realize that they were better off before Pretty classic moral of fairy tale, right? All right.
Done in anything that involves wishes. Pretty much last wish. Always. When does the mall?
Oh, yeah. Oh, This one wasn't limited. to three, though they just kept coming back. I think at one point he asked to be made a king. And then I think her final request was that she be equal to God. Whoa! And the founder goes, All right, go home. She's back in the hut. Something like that was weird, yet I'm not entirely sure translated super well, but whatever. Okay, so the next one is the Godfather.
Yes, but not the way you think, though. So in this story, a poor man with way too many Children meets a stranger and named him as the godfather of his newborn child because he had apparently named every other person in the world as godparents to his other Children. Which is what I mean by way too many Children. So the newly named godfather gives him a bottle of magic water that he claims can heal the sick. The poor man makes a name for himself, healing everyone until he cannot heal the king's son, who then dies. And then the poor man goes back to the Godfather. But strange things are occurring in his house, including a dust pan and a brush that quarrel with each other fish that cook themselves. And upon looking through the people into the Godfather's door, he sees the Godfather donning some very large horns on his head. Oh, basically, from what I can tell, the Godfather is the devil, and that's where it ends.
Or maybe the Krampus
may be Krampus, but essentially the old man confronts him going. What's up with all this weird stuff thing I goes, you're making, You're making it up, you're imagining it. And then he goes, Why are you putting horns on your head? And the guy freaks out and runs out, runs away. And that's how it ends.
So must have been William Blount.
Yes, exactly. He escaped into a fairy tale and is wreaking havoc. Hey, why did you
do the bad thing?
Must escape. Um, all right, So yep, that's that. And then, apparently there's another one. But it's not like a sequel. It's like a weird alternative version that was like, essentially, the Godfather becomes deaf, and it's a very I did not make it all the way through. I want me. This is weird. I'm moving on. All right, So the next one is the ticket, Lafley. False Yes, the real one is the loss in the flea. Um,
I think I'm just good at guessing your your patterns of what I'm going to guess.
I think you're right. I think you know my tall. So in this story allows enough Lear married until the louse drowns. While brewing, I bring what I don't know,
but Brewing's It's German. Witches or beer?
Oh, yes, that one makes more sense. Okay, so the flea mourns inspiring a dort up door. Wow. Okay, sorry. I forgot this one. The flea mourns inspiring a door to ask why, and it starts creaking, wishing this fires a broom to ask why and start sweeping through a secret sequence of objects until a spring overflows at the news and drowns them all. Don't you are not Mickey Mouse. So this type of story is called a chain tail, which is also senator is known as a cumulative tail. And in this this kind of tail, the action or dialogue repeats and builds up in some way as the tail progresses, ending with some sort of climax which is often abrupt, like the ginger run man tale where he gets thes tales often depend upon repetition and rhythm for their effect. And they can require a skilled storyteller to negotiate their tongue twisting repetitions in a performance.
There was an old lady. You lived in issue.
Probably. I don't run the rest of it, I
swallowed a fly. Sent us mouse after the fly.
Oh, yeah? Yes.
Something after the mouse.
Yep, yep. So probably the best example that I could find of this type of story is this is the house that Jack built, and I did not occur to me when I that I was gonna have to say, this is repeatedly and it's so late at night that I'm just gonna list all over this way. You may not understand.
May 12. 30.
Yes. So this is the house that Jack built. This is the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. This is the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. This is the cat that killed the rat that ate the mold that lay in the house that Jack built. This is the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house. that Jack built and it keeps going until you end with This is the horse and the hound and the horn that belonged to the farmer sowing his corn that kept the rooster that crowned in the morn That woke the judge all shaven, insuring that married the man all tattered and torn, that kissed the maiden all forlorn, that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house. The Jackal.
There it is, boy, Very similar to the old lady who fly
so quite the tongue Twister Yeah! All right, So those does. That's the cumulative town. Yes, something mega bushes. So next one a some wings travel
falls again No day
was my street is broken The original title for Tom Thumb Um, And if annuals not familiar with Tom Thumb Tiny Tom Thumb leaves his parent's home to explore the world. But after numerous ordeals and this adventures he manages to return home where he's happy and safe. So you're better off where you started again. Again. All right. The fox and the hound True. Take
the real one is the fox and the cat. Um, so in this one, the fox and the cat talk about their tricks. And the fox boast about his many tricks while the cat admits to only having one. When the hunters come, the cat runs up a tree to hide, which is its only trick. But the fox thinks off all the things that he could D'oh. But does none of them. And so he's caught by the hunters. Yeah, what's all right? So last one layer skin. True? Yes. So this is a story of a poor man who meets the devil and is told that he will have unlimited money if he would for seven years not cut his hair, clip his nails, bathed, pray or wear a coat and cloak that the devil and have he would have to wear a coat and cloak that the devil would give
him. Absolutely. Was not expecting this to be where that title got went.
Right? There was something about a bear skin, but it was like he had to sleep in it or something like that. And I didn't include it cause I got confused by it. Okay, so There is a very skin involved in there somewhere. So at the end, if he survived, he would be rich and free. If he died during that time, then the devil would have him like a vessel. As time goes, he grows so revolting that no one would come near him. Um, and presumably starts to look like a wild there without that coat. Until he hears an old man telling his tale of how he lost all his money, couldn't pay the innkeeper or support his daughters and would likely go to jail. So the now very disgusting man gives it, gives the old man money. And in return, the old man tells him that he will marry one of his daughters. Okay, so he's gonna marry off one of his daughters to the Harry man
who smells bad. Boy. Yep. For daughter.
Yep. So the oldest runs away screaming at the sight of him? Yep. The middle one said that he was worse than a bear than a bear that had tried to pass itself office Human. Okay, the youngest one agreed.
And she agreed to fulfill her father's promise
Yep. So bear seeing gave her half a ring and promised to return in three years. Her sister that her sister's then made fun of her endlessly for three years at the end of the seven years bare skin found the devil again and demanded that he fulfilled his promise, which he does. Dressed in fine clothes and clean, the now wealthy man returns for his bride. The oldest two sisters serve him and his bride, who was dressed in black shows. No reaction doesn't recognize him at all. He told the old man that he would marry one of his daughters. The two older sisters ran off to dress splendidly and bare skin, dropped his half of the ring into a wine cup and gave it to his bride. She drink it and realized that he was her bride. Groom. Daw, you they marry. And upon realizing who he was and what they gave up, one sister hanged yourself in Rage, and the other one drowned yourself. Perfect. Yep, that night the devil knocked on the door to tell bare skin that he had gone to souls for the price of
one. Gets his due.
Yep, And that's the game. Cool. Some of the stories were super weird, but I guess that's the brother's girl for you. That's it. That's all you got? That's all she wrote.
Little Kelly wrote a way
to get to bed. Okay, so for call to action, follow us on Twitter and Facebook at halfway History. History? Yeah, that one. You can find our patriotic half wit pod. And you can also email us at half a pot of gmail dot com.
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Oh, and then you to the fishermen for the use of our theme. song another day. You confined his soundcloud in our show notes all the time. Uh, he has good songs. He puts out stuff every few months and always like it.
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Ready for fun? Fax?
Fun Fax your boy
you wanna go first? Inside Did last time. Sure. Go for it.
All right. I'm just making sure we're good. Right? So December 16th 1997 U. S. President Bill Clinton names his Labrador retriever buddy. Cool. My burning question is, how is this something that has this historic significance?
The web site that we used to make
it onto this website?
No. No web site that we use primarily. Just every time there's an Olympics just rattles off. Gosh, gosh darn thing that it possibly can. So, of course, naming a dog will be Justus. Interesting is doing that every single time for the one guy who want every single thing every single time, every single year.
Yep. But I found this one kind of funny because Clinton also got impeached. Well, they started the process. Oh, wait till he was impeached, but that he was acquitted by the Senate. Yes. Yes, history. I was barely alive, for this was the 19th no 18th
year event. 19th. 19th was on the 17th. Trump gets in just
18. Clinton gun. He's 19. One day, guys, you can do it one day that it could have been the same anyway. That was my. In fact, I don't understand why Vulcans dogs so
important, but that's fine. Well, my fun fact is from December 19th of 1918 where Robert Ripley begins his Believe it or not column in the New York Globe. Fun. I felt that was fitting, considering my topic was pretty much every other bullet point. Believe it or not, you know what? He's back and he's gone and he's back and he's gone.
I have a real quick believe it or not for you. In 1922 December 19th. Theresa von Age, 24 confesses in court in Sheffield, England, to being married 61 times over five years in 50 cities in three countries.
Okay, Wow, that's a lot.
She's 24. How how did she get married? How did you find enough men to have relationships with to get married 61 times? And how did she have time to travel that much to do? All
of this must have been that decades. Ah, Nigerian prince scam
maybe. Yep. Yep. That's it. Anyway, that was my believe it or not.
Well, anyways, that's been our show. We hope you enjoyed listening. As always, I've been your half wit and I'm your historian and we hope to see you again next week.